Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of encephalitis syndromes that cause altered mentality, memory decline, or seizures in association with the presence of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) autoantibodies (auto-Abs). An early diagnosis enables earl
Patients with Hashimoto encephalitis may present
with seizures, stroke-like episodes, transient focal and global neurological
deficits, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disturbances. The encephalopathy
evolves with elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, independent of
hormonal thyroid function. A teenager experienced repeated concussions
antedating onset of Hashimoto encephalopathy. Neuroradiological studies showed
overlapping areas of altered brain metabolism and vascular perfusion in the
hippocampus, deemed most vulnerable in autoimmune encephalopathy. Concussive
brain injury may be a contributing factor in the development of
encephalopathy due to its capacity to alter the blood-brain barrier.
On March 2, 2009, something snapped inside Paul Michael Nelson. In the middle of the night, his parents found the 7-year-old boy stabbing the door of the family’s home office with a kitchen knife, trying to get at a computer that was off-limits after his bedtime.