Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes can be associated with the presence of onconeural antibodies. These antibodies are the result of an immune response against a tumour that is ectopically expressing a neuronal antigen. The ‘classical’ onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ma2, CRMP-5, amphiphysin and Ri) are directed against intracellular antigens and are strongly associated with underlying malignancy. By contrast, onconeural antibodies directed against cell surface antigens (eg, anti-NMDA, VGKC, AChR) have a weaker tumour association. This article gives a practical overview of the tumour associations, and the neurological associations, of the onconeural antibodies. There is also guidance on how to investigate occult malignancy in antibody positive cases.
By Silky Pahlajani, MD Assistant Professor of Behavioral Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College Dr. Pahlajani reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: Detection of autoimmune encephalitis is increasing over time. According to the results from this population-based study, its prevalence and incidence are comparable to infectious encephalitis. SOURCE: Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Kelly CR, et al. Autoimmune encephalitis epidemiology and comparison to infectious encephalitis. Ann Neurol 2018;83:166-177. The traditional diagnostic approach to encephalitis, a broad term for brain . . .
Absence of cerebrospinal fluid antineuronal antibodies in schizophrenia spectrum disorders – Tatiana Oviedo-Salcedo, Lot de Witte, Tania Kümpfel, René S. Kahn, Peter Falkai, Peter Eichhorn, Jurjen Luykx, Alkomiet Hasan
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. It is a rare autoimmune disease that results in the body producing antibodies against the NMDA receptor, a protein that plays an important role in signal transduction in the brain. Using a new treatment regimen, researchers have recorded significant progress in treating the disease, including in patients who did not previously respond to treatment.
Author Nick Brenton, MD, discusses his article Approach to the Management of Pediatric-Onset Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (Anti-NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Series. Second, Dr. Keith van Haren of Stanford discusses his career path and balance of research and clinical medicine.
Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptom