The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation Newsletter




Netflix’s latest movie is based on the true story of an American writer who developed a terrifying brain disease – we speak to three young women who experienced the same condition…

 




N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis (NMDAR-AbE) is an increasingly recognised and treatable encephalitis, with a predilection for children and young adults.1 2 As earlier immunotherapy improves outcomes, timely and accurate recognition of NMDAR-AbE is a major clinical…

 




Time for a change of practice: the real-world value of testing for neuronal autoantibodies in acute first-episode psychosis – Volume 4 Issue 4 – Thomas A. Pollak, Belinda R.Lennox…

 




Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2018 Jul 10. doi: 10.1111/acps.12941.[Epub ahead of print] Review…

 




Seizure. 2018 Jun 28;60:198-204. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.06.021.[Epub ahead of print]…

 




The Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston is pleased to host an AE Family Day of Hope on Saturday, 28 July 2018. Details concerning the location …Read More…

 




Mechanisms underlying autoimmune synaptic encephalitis leading to disorders of memory, behavior and cognition: insights from molecular, cellular and synaptic studies Emilia H. Moscato Ankit Jain Xiaoyu Peng Ethan G. Hughes Josep Dalmau Rita J. Balice‐Gordon First published: 22 July 2010 Cited by: 45 Dr Rita J. Balice‐Gordon, as above. E‐mail: rbaliceg@mail.med.upenn.edu. Abstract Recently, several novel, potentially lethal and treatment‐responsive syndromes that affect hippocampal and cortical function have been shown to be associated with auto‐antibodies against synaptic antigens, notably glutamate or GABA‐B receptors. Patients with these auto‐antibodies, sometimes associated with teratomas and other neoplasms, present with psychiatric symptoms, seizures, memory deficits and decreased levels of consciousness. These symptoms often improve dramatically after immunotherapy or tumor resection. Here we review studies of the cellular and synaptic effects of these antibodies in hippocampal neurons in vitro and preliminary work in rodent models. Our work suggests that patient antibodies lead to rapid and reversible removal of neurotransmitter receptors from synaptic sites, leading to changes in synaptic and circuit function that in turn are likely to lead to behavioral deficits. We also discuss several of the many questions raised by these and related disorders. Determining the mechanisms underlying these novel anti‐neurotransmitter receptor encephalopathies will provide insights into the cellular and synaptic bases of the memory and cognitive deficits that are hallmarks of these disorders, and potentially suggest avenues for therapeutic intervention. Citing Literature Number of times cited: 45 Uluhan Sili, Mustafa Emir Tavsanli and Asli Tufan, Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Geriatric Patients, Current Geriatrics Reports, 6, 1, (34), (2017). Crossref Eric Lancaster, CNS syndromes associated with antibodies against metabotropic receptors, Current Opinion in Neurology, 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000448, 30, 3, (354-360), (2017). Crossref Julie Jézéquel, Emily M. Johansson, Julien P. Dupuis, Véronique Rogemond, Hélène Gréa, Blanka Kellermayer, Nora Hamdani, Emmanuel Le Guen, Corentin Rabu, Marilyn Lepleux, Marianna Spatola, Elodie Mathias, Delphine Bouchet, Amy J. Ramsey, Robert H. Yolken, Ryad Tamouza, Josep Dalmau, Jérôme Honnorat, Marion Leboyer and Laurent Groc, Dynamic disorganization of synaptic NMDA receptors triggered by autoantibodies from psychotic patients, Nature Communications, 8, 1, (2017). Crossref Eric Lancaster, Paraneoplastic Disorders, CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology, 23, (1653), (2017). Crossref Christopher A. Ovens, Angelo Jayamanne and Andrew Duggins, Gamma-aminobutyric acid-B limbic encephalitis and asystolic cardiac arrest: a case report, Journal of Medical Case Reports, 10.1186/s13256-017-1520-z, 11, 1, (2017). Crossref B.P. Kelley, S.C. Patel, H.L. Marin, J.J. Corrigan, P.D. Mitsias and B. Griffith, Autoimmune Encephalitis: Pathophysiology and Imaging Review of an Overlooked Diagnosis, American Journal of Neuroradiology, 38, 6, (1070), (2017). Crossref Christoph J. Schankin, Fabian Kästele, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Tobias Winkler, Endy Csanadi, Tobias Högen, Hannah Pellkofer, Walter Paulus, Tania Kümpfel and Andreas Straube, New‐Onset Headache in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis Is Associated With anti‐NMDA‐Receptor Antibodies, Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 56, 6, (995-1003), (2016). Wiley Online Library Erdem Tuzun, Autoantibodies to Neurotransmitter Receptors and Ion Channels in Psychotic Disorders, Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26, 1, (75), (2016). Crossref Federica Delunardo, Denise Soldati, Veronica Bellisario, Alessandra Berry, Serena Camerini, Marco Crescenzi, Cristiano Alessandri, Fabrizio Conti, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Ada Francia, Guido Valesini, Francesca Cirulli, Alberto Siracusano, Alessandra Siracusano, Cinzia Niolu, Ivo Alex Rubino, Elena Ortona and Paola Margutti, Anti‐GAPDH Autoantibodies as a Pathogenic Determinant and Potential Biomarker of Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Arthritis & Rheumatology, 68, 11, (2708-2716), (2016). Wiley Online Library Carolin Hoffmann, Shenghua Zong, Marina Mané-Damas, Peter Molenaar, Mario Losen and Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Antibodies, 5, 4, (9), (2016). Crossref Ankit Jain and Rita Balice-Gordon, Cellular, synaptic, and circuit effects of antibodies in autoimmune CNS synaptopathies, Autoimmune Neurology, 10.1016/B978-0-444-63432-0.00005-0, (77-93), (2016). Crossref Eric Lancaster, The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis, Journal of Clinical Neurology, 10.3988/jcn.2016.12.1.1, 12, 1, (1), (2016). Crossref Xiaoyu Peng, Ethan G. Hughes, Emilia H. Moscato, Thomas D. Parsons, Josep Dalmau and Rita J. Balice‐Gordon, Cellular plasticity induced by anti–α‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor encephalitis antibodies, Annals of Neurology, 77, 3, (381-398), (2015). Wiley Online Library Emmanuel Le Guen, Raphaël Doukhan, Nora Hamdani, Ryad Tamouza, Laurent Groc, Jérôme Honnorat and Marion Leboyer, Anticorps anti-NR1 dans l’encéphalite anti-récepteur N-méthyl-D-aspartate et la schizophrénie, médecine/sciences, 31, 1, (60), (2015). Crossref Frank Leypoldt, Thaís Armangue and Josep Dalmau, Autoimmune encephalopathies, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1338, 1, (94-114), (2014). Wiley Online Library Naoko Tachibana, Michiaki Kinoshita, Fuyuki Kametani, Keiko Tanaka, Yumi Une, Yotaro Komatsu, Yukihiro Kobayashi and Shu-ichi Ikeda, Expression of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunits in the Bovine Ovum: Ova as a Potential Source of Autoantigens Causing Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis, The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 10.1620/tjem.235.223, 235, 3, (223-231), (2015). Crossref Hao Ding, Zhihong Jian, Creed M. Stary, Wei Yi and Xiaoxing Xiong, Molecular Pathogenesis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis, BioMed Research International, 2015, (1), (2015). Crossref M Dogan Onugoren, D Deuretzbacher, C A Haensch, H J Hagedorn, S Halve, S Isenmann, C Kramme, H Lohner, N Melzer, R Monotti, S Presslauer, W R Schäbitz, S Steffanoni, K Stoeck, M Strittmatter, F Stögbauer, E Trinka, T J von Oertzen, H Wiendl, F G Woermann and C G Bien, Limbic encephalitis due to GABABand AMPA receptor antibodies: a case series, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 86, 9, (965), (2015). Crossref Bjørn Ivar Haukanes, Tor-Arne Hegvik, Tilo Eichler, Jan Haavik and Christian Vedeler, Paraneoplastic syndrome-associated neuronal antibodies in adult ADHD, Journal of Neuroimmunology, 288, (87), (2015). Crossref KRISTIN C. JONES, ANN C. SCHWARTZ, ADRIANA P. HERMIDA and DAVID A. KAHN, A Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Treated with ECT, Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 21, 5, (374), (2015). Crossref T. Bartsch and P. Wulff, The hippocampus in aging and disease: From plasticity to vulnerability, Neuroscience, 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.084, 309, (1-16), (2015). Crossref Julien P Dupuis, Laurent Ladépêche, Henrik Seth, Lucie Bard, Juan Varela, Lenka Mikasova, Delphine Bouchet, Véronique Rogemond, Jérôme Honnorat, Eric Hanse and Laurent Groc, Surface dynamics of GluN2B‐NMDA receptors controls plasticity of maturing glutamate synapses, The EMBO Journal, 33, 8, (842-861), (2014). Wiley Online Library Ester Coutinho, Paul Harrison and Angela Vincent, Do Neuronal Autoantibodies Cause Psychosis? A Neuroimmunological Perspective, Biological Psychiatry, 75, 4, (269), (2014). Crossref M.R. Rosenfeld and J. Dalmau, Autoimmune Encephalitis Affecting Synaptic Proteins, Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, 10.1016/B978-0-12-385157-4.00189-5, (342-344), (2014). Crossref T. A. Pollak, R. McCormack, M. Peakman, T. R. Nicholson and A. S. David, Prevalence of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Psychological Medicine, 44, 12, (2475), (2014). Crossref Eric Lancaster, Encephalomyelopathies, The Autoimmune Diseases, 10.1016/B978-0-12-384929-8.00057-5, (817-833), (2014). Crossref M. Debnath and M. Berk, Th17 Pathway-Mediated Immunopathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Mechanisms and Implications, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 6, (1412), (2014). Crossref T.A. Pollak, T.R. Nicholson, J.D.C. Mellers, A. Vincent and A.S. David, Epilepsy-related psychosis: A role for autoimmunity?, Epilepsy & Behavior, 36, (33), (2014). Crossref Hiromasa Sawamura, Tomotaka Yamamoto, Ryo Ohtomo, Taro Bannai, Masato Wakakura and Shoji Tsuji, Anti–NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Associated With Transient Cerebral Dyschromatopsia, Prosopagnosia, and Lack of Stereopsis, Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000117, 34, 2, (144-148), (2014). Crossref Tae-Joon Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Jung-Won Shin, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jung-Ick Byun, Yong-Won Shin, Keon-Joo Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Young-Soo Kim, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu and Sang Kun Lee, Clinical manifestations and outcomes of the treatment of patients with GABAB encephalitis, Journal of Neuroimmunology, 270, 1-2, (45), (2014). Crossref Christian Probst, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Winfried Stoecker and Lars Komorowski, Anti-neuronal autoantibodies: Current diagnostic challenges, Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 10.1016/j.msard.2013.12.001, 3, 3, (303-320), (2014). Crossref Nico Melzer, Sven G. Meuth and Heinz Wiendl, Paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmunity to neurons in the central nervous system, Journal of Neurology, 260, 5, (1215), (2013). Crossref Irina I. Stoyanova, Joost le Feber and Wim L.C. Rutten, Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner, Regulatory Peptides, 186, (43), (2013). Crossref Kevin Charles Jones, Susanne M. Benseler and Mahendranath Moharir, Anti–NMDA Receptor Encephalitis, Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 23, 2, (309), (2013). Crossref Ganesan Venkatasubramanian and Monojit Debnath, The TRIPS (Toll-like receptors in immuno-inflammatory pathogenesis) Hypothesis: a novel postulate to understand schizophrenia, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.04.001, 44, (301-311), (2013). Crossref Harry E. Peery, Gregory S. Day, Asif Doja, Chenjie Xia, Marvin J. Fritzler and Warren G. Foster, Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in children, Pediatric Neurology Part II, 10.1016/B978-0-444-52910-7.00045-3, (1229-1233), (2013). Crossref F. Asztely and E. Kumlien, The diagnosis and treatment of limbic encephalitis, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 126, 6, (365-375), (2012). Wiley Online Library Harry E. Peery, Gregory S. Day, Shannon Dunn, Marvin J. Fritzler, Harald Prüss, Claire De Souza, Asif Doja, Karen Mossman, Lothar Resch, Chenjie Xia, Boris Sakic, Larry Belbeck and Warren G. Foster, Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. The disorder, the diagnosis and the immunobiology, Autoimmunity Reviews, 10.1016/j.autrev.2012.03.001, 11, 12, (863-872), (2012). Crossref Nico Melzer, Sven G. Meuth and Heinz Wiendl, Neuron-directed autoimmunity in the central nervous system, Current Opinion in Neurology, 25, 3, (341), (2012). Crossref Lenka Mikasova, Pierre De Rossi, Delphine Bouchet, François Georges, Véronique Rogemond, Adrien Didelot, Claire Meissirel, Jérôme Honnorat and Laurent Groc, Disrupted surface cross-talk between NMDA and Ephrin-B2 receptors in anti-NMDA encephalitis, Brain, 135, 5, (1606), (2012). Crossref Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Christine Klingbeil, Claudia Gneiss, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Kathrin Borowski, Florian Deisenhammer, Angela Vincent, Christian Probst and Winfried Stöcker, Neue serologische Marker zur Differentialdiagnose der Autoimmun-Enzephalitis/New serological markers for the differential diagnosis of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, LaboratoriumsMedizin, 35, 6, (329), (2011). Crossref T. Wingfield, C. McHugh, A. Vas, A. Richardson, E. Wilkins, A. Bonington and A. Varma, Autoimmune encephalitis: a case series and comprehensive review of the literature, QJM, 104, 11, (921), (2011). Crossref Josep Dalmau, Eric Lancaster, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, Myrna R Rosenfeld and Rita Balice-Gordon, Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, The Lancet Neurology, 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70253-2, 10, 1, (63-74), (2011). Crossref Ralf J. Ludwig, Karen Vanhoorelbeke, Frank Leypoldt, Ziya Kaya, Katja Bieber, Sandra M. McLachlan, Lars Komorowski, Jie Luo, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Christoph M. Hammers, Jon M. Lindstrom, Peter Lamprecht, Andrea Fischer, Gabriela Riemekasten, Claudia Tersteeg, Peter Sondermann, Basil Rapoport, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Christian Probst, Asmaa El Beidaq, Enno Schmidt, Alan Verkman, Rudolf A. Manz and Falk Nimmerjahn, Mechanisms of Autoantibody-Induced Pathology, Frontiers in Immunology, 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00603, 8, (2017). Crossref Kenneth E. Remy, Jason W. Custer, Joshua Cappell, Cortney B. Foster, Nan A. Garber, L. Kyle Walker, Liliana Simon and Dayanand Bagdure, Pediatric Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review with Pooled Analysis and Critical Care Emphasis, Frontiers in Pediatrics, 10.3389/fped.2017.00250, 5, (2017). Crossref Volume32, Issue2 Special Issue: Glutamatergic Synapses July 2010 Pages 298-309

 




We are excited to draw your attention to the latest volume of Seminars in Neurology, Vol 38, Issue No. 3, which is 100% devoted to …Read More…

 




A new study by Oxford Health researchers has found that specific antibodies may cause schizophrenia in some patients.

 




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